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Pattern of diseases and preventive measures among domestic Hajjis from Riyadh, 1431 H


Certain types of diseases present themselves among Hajjis depending on the season of the Hajj. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), diarrheal diseases and trauma are important conditions during the Hajj season and in this study the objective was to identify the occurrence of these conditions and the practice of some preventive measures for these conditions.A cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the incidence of selected diseases among hajjis, registered while visiting randomly selected Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) of Riyadh, to get mandatory meningococcal meningitis vaccination. On return from Hajj, hajjis were contacted by telephone to collect information about occurrence of URTI and diarrhea related symptoms along with other associated activities in Hajj.


Out of 1507 hajjis, 54.7% (95% CI 52.2% - 57.3%) hajjis developed symptoms. Of the 825 reporting symptoms, 97% reported upper respiratory tract symptoms, and 9.3% reported diarrheal symptoms (not mutually exclusive). Those less than 40 years of age were more likely to develop an URTI (P= 0.004). The incidence of diarrheal diseases or trauma was not statistically associated with age. No statistical difference for educational level was found for URTI or trauma, but there was a statistically significant difference for diarrheal diseases (P= 0.002). There was no statistical difference for nationality in relation to diarrheal diseases and trauma, but there was a statistically significant difference for URTI (P= 0.0008).


No statistical difference for use of facemask between those who used facemask and those who never used it, but there was a statistically significant difference (P= 0.034) between those who used it most of the time and those who used it sometimes. No statistical difference for face cover use was found for URTI.


The surveillance system for URTI need to be enhanced by the Ministry of Health because of its high incidence and the burden it may have on health system both in Hajj area and back at the Hajjis hometown.