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Pattern of Laboratory Results in Hajj Season, 1429H.


The rise in population, crowdedness and stress duringHajj creates an opportunity for infections and spread of micro-organisms among Hajjis and non-Hajjis. This study was conducted during Hajj 1429 H to describe the pattern of laboratory test results (microbiological, viral and serological) performed at Ministry of Health hospitals in Makkah and Mina, to compare the laboratory test-results between Hajji's and non-Hajji's, and to assess the level of completeness of information documented on the laboratory forms.


This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at three hospitals in Makkah (Ajyad, Alzaher, and King Faisal Hospitals) and one hospital in Mina (Mina Emergency Hospital). All available microbiological, immunological, and serological laboratory forms where specimens were collected from patients between the 1st and 13th of Dhul Hijjah, 1429 H were selected. Information was documented on a pre-designed data collection instrument based on the available information found on the MOH laboratory forms.


A total of 1737 laboratory forms were collected.The mean age of patients was 52.9 years (SD ± 22.1 years). Males were 58% and females 32%. The most common age group was 41-60 years (44.3%). Maximum forms belonged to Hajji's 1281 (73.7%). The most frequent patients were Saudis, while majority were non Hajji's 257 (56.4%). The diagnosis was mentioned in only 181 (10.4%) forms. Among those, the most frequent diagnosis was cerebrovascular accidents 19 (10.5%), followed by septicemia 16 (8.8%), pneumonia 15 (8.3%), chest infection 13 (7.2%), and fractures 8 (4.4%). The Secondary diagnosis was mentioned in only 29 (1.7%) forms, the most frequent diagnosis was hypertension (HTN) 11 (37.9%). Specimens were extracted from blood, C.S.F, sputum, stool, throat swab, urine, wounds and others. The most common were blood 785 (45.3%) and urine 369 (21.3%). Laboratory results were positive for 326 (22.8%) specimens. The five most frequent organisms were Escherichia coli 62 (19.1%), Staphylococcus aureus 57 (17.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 45 (13.9%), Acinetobacter baumannii/haemolyticus 25 (7.7%), and Enterococcus faecalis 21 (6.55%). A total of 326 antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The five most frequent antibiotics tested for sensitivity were Augmentin 280 (85.9%), Gentamicin 277 (84.9%), Ampicillin 259 (79.4%), Ciprofloxacin 250 (76.7%), and Tetracycline 189 (58%). The most sensitive antibiotic was Vancomycin 119 (99.2%), followed by Linezolid 75 (98.7%), and Teicoplanin 34 (97.1%). Serological tests were requested in 310 forms, the most important were HIV 242 (78.1%), hepatitis C antibody 253 (81.6%), and HbsAg 259 (83.5%). HIV was positive in 1.7%, Hepatitis C antibody was positive in 14.6%, and HbsAg positive in 3.5%.


Our study revealed the high level of incompleteness of the laboratory request forms. The most common micro-organisms found were Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii/haemolyticus, and Enterococcus faecalis.