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Prevalence of Pre-Hypertension among Saudi males Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Makkah City, Saudi Arabia, 2019


In Saudi Arabia, the pre-hypertension has become a major public health concern due to its strong association with increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. The prevalence of pre-hypertension in Saudi Arabia according to the Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is 46.5% of males and 34.3% of the female. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pre-hypertension and its associated risk factors among Saudis attending Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia.


We conducted a cross-sectional study of Saudi males aged 18 years and above, visiting a PHCC in Makkah over a one-month period. We directly interviewed respondents using a fully structured questionnaire to assess risk factors, such as family history of hypertension, smoking, food habits, physical activity. Anthropometric measurements were taken along with laboratory assessment of Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C).


The total number of participants was 392, with a mean age of 38.8 years (Standard Deviation ±12). About 212 participants 47% were diagnosed as pre-hypertension, of whom 51.6% were 26-45 years old, 63.4% were obese or overweight; 28.4% had a waist circumstance (WC) over 102 cm, 47% had high blood pressure, 57.4% had a family history of hypertension, 25.9% were smokers, 74.5% did not consume vegetables and fruits daily, and 63.2% were physically inactive. After adjusting for other variables, statistically significant risk factors for pre-hypertension were being obese, older age, smoking, and HbA1C (5.7% -6.4%).


In our study, we found that the prevalence of pre-hypertension and associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia remained high. Since pre-hypertension progresses to hypertension and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, there is a need to recognize its risk factors in order to prevent its development.